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Primi passi per un approccio semplice alla lingua inglese: partiamo con cenni generali, pronomi, generi, aggettivi, articoli, infinito e verbi ausiliari
Noun – sostantivo
Adjective – aggettivo
Verb – verbo
Adverb – avverbio
Pronoun - pronome
I (io) - You (tu) - He (lui, egli); She (lei, ella); It (esso / for animals and objects)
We (noi) - You (voi) - They (loro, essi)
You and forms of courtesy
You in English is for everyone: singular, plural and important people (L’inglese non prevede il “lei”, prevede altre forme di cortesia)
. You are my best friend. (two friends talking)
. Are you listening to me? (teacher to her class)
. I am honoured to meet you, Your Highness. (to royalty)
We show our respect by using titles and forms of courtesy
. Your Highness – Sua altezza (Queen or other royal people)
. Your Holiness – Sua Santità (The Pope)
. Sir – Signore
. Madam – Signora etc.
Genders and Indefinite article
In English there are no genders so all the nouns are the same. (Non esistono generi)
The definite article is the e.g. the moon, the sun, the cat etc.
The indefinite article is a (or an) e.g. a car, an orange, a dog, an open door
The “h” is considered a consonant (a house, a heart, a hot day) but if the initial "h" is silent, the word begins with a vowel sound, we need to use "an" (an hour, an honest man).
We use "a" with words starting with u but pronounced as "iu" (a union, a user, a European)
We use the indefinite article with the singular form and no article with the plural form. (L’articolo indeterminativo si utilizza solamente con il singolare) - A red car (singular indefinite article “a”) But Red flowers (no article)
In English the adjectives are invariable: they don’t change and they go before the noun.
Gli aggettivi non variano e vanno inseriti sempre prima del sostantivo
e.g. A red car - A red book - Red flower
In English, the infinitive (also called base form) of the verb is formed with “to”:
L’infinito si forma con “to”: e.g. to eat, to have, to be, to do, etc.
Used to + Infinitive
- We use this structure to speak about past habits and states
We used to go out at New Year (past habit)
There used to be a park there but now houses have been built. (past state)
Basic rule: add the suffix -s (apple - apples)
Words ending in s, ss, x, ch, sh: add the suffix -es (dress - dresses)
Words ending in consonant + y: change y in i + add the suffix -es (cherry – cherries)
Words ending in vowel + y: add the suffix -s (day – days)
Words ending in f or fe: change f/fe in v + add the suffix -es (wife – wives)
Some nouns don´t change in plural (sheep, fish, deer, etc.)
Irregular: child – children / person – people / man – men / woman – women / tooth – teeth / foot – feet / fish - fish / ice - ice / ox - oxen / potato - potatoes / goose - geese
As well as being verbs in their own right, the verbs “to be”, “to have” and “to do” are also used as auxiliary verbs.
Nota: i verbi essere, avere e fare possono essere utilizzati come verbi ausiliari.
We can use the expression “What…like?” to ask for a description of anything (Possiamo usare l'espressione "Cosa... come?" per chiedere una descrizione di qualsiasi cosa)
at all: a place, an event, a person, a building etc.
e.g. What is your house like? Com’è la tua casa?
What is your brother like? Com’è tuo fratello?
What was the film like? Com’era il film?
Verbs of movement
The verbs of movement are followed by the preposition "to"
(I verbi di movimento sono seguiti dalla preposizione "to")
I went to Slovenia. (Sono andato in Slovenia.)
I go to the gym three times a week. (Vado in palestra tre volte a settimana.)
We often drive to Milan on business. (Spesso guidiamo fino a Milano per lavoro)
We flew to Dubai last year (Siamo volati a Dubai l'anno scorso)
Scritto da www.brunogalazzi.com il 08/10/2022